The theory of authentic leadership integrates and simplifies many concepts in the evolving topic of leadership development. Goleman’s model of four domains of emotional intelligence was significant in leadership education because the domains made the connection between competencies and leadership, adding clarity to the distinction between leading self and leading others (Goleman, Boyatis, & McKee, 2002). Emotional intelligence alerted us to the importance of relationships, especially between the leader and followers. Also, the introduction of leadership competencies provided momentum for new ways of learning leadership. The critical tool of coaching emerged as the way to learn through dialogue and conversations with beginnings in the 1990s through the practice of executive coaching in Europe (Kets de Vries & Korotov, 2007). Executive coaching became the way for teaching leaders goal orientation and helping them to shift from directional leadership styles to more relationship based modes. In executive coaching a learning space emerges; one where discovery and transformative experience are possible (De Haan, Berties, Day & Sills, 2010). Research on coaching for leadership development is substantive in education for physician and nurses, teachers, and in psychology (De Haan & Duckworth, 2012; Garcia, 2009). In business, Griffiths and Campbell (2009) noted the rapid growth of coaching during the 1990s; Levinson (2009) used case studies to measure the financial impact of coaching; and Bowser (2012) reported that coaching for leadership development contributed to the financial value of business.
Avolio (2012) made enormous contributions to the topic of leadership development, especially with his explanations of the full range leadership model. He continues to write and lead centres of leadership in American universities, most recently at the University of Washington. Avolio conceptualizes the process of leadership development by beginning with a validation of self by asking the powerful coaching questions that provoke leaders to reflect and question themselves. His personally reflects on his transition form one leadership role to another, giving evidence to the experience of leadership development in his published books. A keen sense of leader self-awareness guides the leader through the transition to a new role, by always being attentive to and mindful of where he is at this moment in time and where he wants to take his followers. .
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