“so it is the followers and not the leaders themselves who know bets about the quality and effectiveness of leadership”   by Geert Hofstede (Connerley & Pedersen, 2005, pp. IX-X)

The debate about the efficacy of competency as a measure of performance is a long one. The Hay Associates (see book on PM from 1990s in my office) proposed competency frameworks in the late twentieth century.

Leadership Practices Inventory

The Leadership Challenge Model

Leadership Practices

Kouzes and Posner (1987, 2002) developed the leadership model known as the leadership challenge from their research on personal-best experiences of leaders. The authors designed the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) as a self-assessment tool for leaders to measure the frequency of behaviors. The LPI consists of thirty statements, rated on a 10 point Likert scale; and the software for the assessment groups the statements into five leadership practices or subscales: model the way, inspire a shared vision, challenge the process, enable others to act, and encourage the heart. The authors claim leadership is a learned behavior developed through the study of the five practices and evidence continues to support their claims (MacIntyre, 2016).


Teaching Change Management

Disruptive Change in Academia

What a joy discovering that a leader  can be true to his or herself, while leading organizational change. Rather than assuming that resistance to change is inevitable, leaders help individuals to make their way through the transition by choosing to change behavior.  Reading Grant (2013) and Kahne (2017) helps leaders to connect the doubts and find a match between heart and mind. Unfortunately this is not true in  post-secondary education. For example, an  academic learned a harsh lesson about the pressure to publish. Her employer  changed the rules of the game; instead of priding itself as a teaching university, the basis on which she was recruited, quantity of publications became the only metric. The futility of rationale argument flew out the window along with her excellent teaching career; and the culture of fear overtook the cognitive and humanistic domains. The risks of loosing one’s job are ever present in the unpredictable world of academia where ‘leaders” are thrown away and new ones enter with their massive ego as momentum. Unlike other industries,  where stakeholders impose more checks and balances on the behavior of leaders,  in universities toxic leadership remains a norm.

References for teaching change management

Grant. A. (2013). Give and Take: Why helping others drives our success. New York, NY, Penguin Books.

Kahane, A.M.  (2017). Collaborating with the Enemy: How to work with people you don’t  agree with or like or trust. Oakland, CA: Berett-Koelher.

Chemucheka, Tendai. (2018, February). The Importance of Entrepreneurial Competencies on the Performance of Women Entrepreneurs South Africa. Journal of Applied Business Research 34(2), 223-236. DOI: 10.19030/jabr.v34i2.10122

MacIntyre, P.L. (2016, January). Advancing leaders in engineering: Ways of learning leadership. Transformative Dialogues. http://www.kpu.ca/sites/default/files/Transformative%20Dialogues/TD.8.3.6_MacIntyre_Ways_of_Learning_Leadership.pdf

Weist, L.R. and Pop, K.J. (2018, March). Guiding Dominating Students to More Egalitarian Classroom Participation. Transformative Dialogues. http://www.kpu.ca/sites/default/files/Transformative%20Dialogues/TD.11.1.9_Wiest%26Pop_Guiding_Dominating_Students.pdf


Berg, M. and Seeber, B.K. (2016). The Slow Professor: Challenging the culure of speed in the academy. Toronto, ONT. University of Toronto Press.

Bowen, J.A. (2012). Teaching Naked: How moving technology out of your college classroom will improve student learning. San Francisco, CA. Jossey-Bass.

Brock, A. and Hundley, H. ( 2016). The Growth Mindset Coach: A teacher’s month-by-month handbook for empowering students to achieve. Berkeley, CA. Ulysses Press.

Crawford, M., Edmundson, M., Pfau, T. & McCullough, M. (2014, summer). Minding Our Minds. In The Hedgehog Review 16(2), 8-126.

Cross, J. (2007). Informal learning: Rediscovering the Natural Pathways That Inpsire Innovation and Performance. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.

Dweck, C.S. (   ). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York, NY. Ballantine Books.

Sambedna Jena, Chandan Kumar Sahoo, (2014). Improving managerial performance: a study on entrepreneurial and leadership competencies.  Industrial and Commercial Training, 46(3), pp.143-149, https://doi-org.contentproxy.phoenix.edu/10.1108/ICT-10-2013-0066

Knowles, M.S., Holton III, E.F., & Swanson, R.A. (2005). The Adult Learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development. 6th Edition. Burlington, MA. Elsevier

Kouzes, J.M. and Posner, B.Z. (2016). Learning Leadership:: The five fundamentals of becoming an exemplary leader. San Francisco, CA. Wiley.

Gilbert, T.F. (2007). Human Competence: Engineering Worthy Performance. Tribute Edition. San Francisco, CA. Pfeiffer.

Halbert, j. and Kaser, J. (2013, Feb). The Spiral of Inquiry: For equity and inquiry. Workbook 10th printing November 2016 by The BC Principals’ & Vice-Principals’ Association. Vancouver, BC. See http://www.bcpvpa.bc.ca

Lapham, L.W. (2008, fall). Ways of Learning. Edited collection of essyas on American education.  Lapham’s Quarterly  1(4), 1-221.

Leigh, E. and Kinder, J. ( 2001). Fun & Games for Workplace Learning: 40 structured learning activities to enhance workplace learning. Sydney, NSW. McGraw-Hill Australia

Merriam, S.B. and Bierema, L.L. (2014).  Adult Learning: Linking theory and practice. San Francisco, CA. Jossey-Bass

Raelin, J.A. (2008). Work-Based Learning: Bridging knowledge and action in the workplace. San Francisco, CA. Jossey-Bass

Stoner, C.R. and Stoner, J.S. (2013). Building Leaders: Paving the way for emerging leaders. New York, NY. Routledge.

Weatherby, L., Rosen, C., Jacobs, A., & Tenner, E. (2018, spring). The Human and the Digital. In The Hedgehog Review 20(1), 6-159.