International Students Flock to Canada: A Literature Review


In 2018, international students fled to Canadian universities to escape the challenges of living in their home country. According to Ibbitson (2018), Canada expects to receive over 500,000 international students who will attend kinder garden to grade 12, and post-secondary institutions (para.4). With the Canadian dollar lower due to the falling oil prices, charging international students  exorbitant tuition fees is the clarion call of British Columbia according to the news media (Choise 2014, 2017; Crowley, 2018; Ibbitson, 2018).

Researchers reveal that the decision-making of international students is not a simplistic push-pull model. In contrast, it is a dynamic motivational process involving choices between the country where they choose to do education and the country where they choose to “make a home” (de Haas, 2014; Findlay et al., 2012).


Foreign Students

In European countries like Austria, Hungary, France, and the United Kingdom, political and economic changes create new barriers to immigration. In Canada’s biggest trading partner, the trend began in 2015, with political shift to the conservative right. Canada welcomes the diversity in its universities, where educators enjoy the challenge of enhancing programs to support its multicultural student population. At the University of British Columbia (UBC), one in four UBC students is international ; that is 14,400 international students in a population of 62,000 (Xu, 2017, para. 15-15).  Israelson (2017) reported on the Canadian results the GMAT test, used for admission to MBA programs, it is the Graduate Management Admission Test.  “Canada received more international applicants for MBA programs than any other country in 2015, beating even perennial favourites such as the United States and Britain. Seventy-three per cent of all MBA applications were to Canadian schools – most from India, then China, Nigeria, Saudie Arabia and the United States” ( ¶ 15).

The label ‘foreign’ is anachronistic, one that summons up the words of my  parents’ vocabulary, from the early twentieth century. Fortunately, only the news media use the term. Crowley (2018) cautions against the hastiness to open flood doors because Canadian standards of professional practice may be set aside. The regulatory regime for dentist, pharmacists, medical doctors, physiotherapists, and registered nurses is rigorous. For example, dentists in Canada and India attend school for five years. The Indian dentists lack competency in anatomy and the quality of their dentistry  reflects this inadequacy. Similarly, a French medical doctor arrives in Canada in 2009; but a closer look at this MD reveals that he went to graduate school and never practiced as a medical doctor. In British Columbia, it is permissible for him to advertise his clinic, with an MD after his name. Canadian consumers of health services used to  rely upon licensing of health practitioners; in the tsunami of globalization,  an under-qualified medical doctor gains enormous access to the global market of health services.

In Canada, university education is managed provincially, not by the federal government in Ottawa.  In the west coast province of British Columbia, it’s clear that  revenue from foreign students dominates the legislative agenda (Xu, 2018). International students at Kwantlen Polytechnic University face two tuition hikes:  a 7.5 per cent increase in  September 2018, followed by a further 6.98 per cent in September, 2019. Usually, they  enter Canada from an homogeneous culture and bring expectations framed by a mono-cultural origin.

Legislation for Permanent Residency on Canada

As professionals, international students seek a pathway into the Canadian workforce; and recent legislation may facilitate this transition. email Fernanda on Sat for an interview on Monday; she has best knowledge  of the legislation; talk to Jobin on Saturday about his experience at the US border

From Globalization to Globality 

In 2018, we continue to learn the lessons of globalization, as people move from their home countries driven by a variety of factors to seek safety and a future for their family. Sadly leaders in Austria, Hungry, England and the United States reinforced their barriers to change with strident, defensive claims against immigration. Fortunately, Canada continues to offer a beacon of hope, while mindful of the risks of immigration in the new millennium. Now the appropriate term is ‘globality’ (2008), an appreciation of  the implications of globalization in the late twentieth century. Its underlies the current trend for teaching business students entrepreneurial skills, rather than the out-dated lexicon of corporations that was common earlier. Entrepreneurs take risks and bring innovation into an economy; this speaks to globality, and the willingness of individuals to take a chance on the future in a completely different nation.


Belcourt, M. and McBey, K.J. (2010). Strategic Human Resources Planning Fourth Edition. Toronto, ONT. Nelson Education.

Bradshaw, James. (May 11, 2018). As Ottawa  Pushes for More International Students, Universities Wonder About Spaces for Canadians. In The Globe and Mail see https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/education/as-ottawa-pushes-for-foreign-students-critics-worry-about-how-schools-will-handle-them/article16378000/

Chirkov, V., de Guzman, J. & Playford, K. (2008, Sept). Further examining the role motivation to study abroad plays in the adaptation of international students in Canada.  International Journal of Intercultural Relations 32(5), 427-440. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2007.12.001

Choise, Simona. (May 11, 2014). Canada’s pitch to foreign students: Come here, it’s expensive. In The Globe and Mail retrieved Dec 11, 2018 from https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/education/canadas-pitch-to-foreign-students-come-here-its-expensive/article16752173/

Choise, Simona. (May 15, 2017). Canadian Universities See Surge of International Students. In The Globe and Mail, see https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/education/international-admissions-to-canadian-universities-see-significant-increase/article34984977/

Clark, Campbell. (March 23, 2012). Canadian universities bridge foreign students tuition gap to attract thousands of Brazilian students. In The Globe and Mail; retrieved Dec 11, 2018 from  https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/canadian-universities-bridge-foreign-student-tuition-gap-to-attract-thousands-of-brazilian-students/article534098/

Connerley, M.L, and Pedersen, P.B. (2005). Leadership  in a Diverse and Multicultural Environment. Thousand Oaks, CA. Sage Publications.

Crowley, B.L. (May 11, 2018). In foreign-students gold rush: Standards get left behind. In The Globe and Mail; retrieved Dec 11, 2018 from https://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/economy/economy-lab/in-foreign-student-gold-rush-standards-get-left-behind/article16478016/

Ely, R.J., Stone, P., & Ammerman, C. (2014, Dec). Rethink what you “know” about high achieving women.  Harvard Business Review. 93(3), 101-109.

Fernandez-Araoz, C, Roscoe M. A., & Aramake, K. (2017, Nov). Turning Potential into success: The Missing link in leadership development. Harvard Business Review 95 (6), 86-93.

Fernando-Araoz, C., Iqual, S., & Ritter, J. (2015, April). Leadership Lessons from Great Family Businesses. Harvard Business Review 93(4), 82-88.

Finkelstein, S.  (2018, Jan-Feb). The best leaders are great teachers: They personalize instruction to help their employees soar. Harvard Business Review, 96(1), 142-145.

Frisch, B. & Greene, C. (2015, March). Leadership summits that work. Harvard Business Review. 93(3), 101-109.

Gardner H.K. (2015, March). When senior managers won’t collaborate. Harvard Business Review. 93(3), 101-109.

Ghosh, R. and Galczynski. (2014). Redefining Multicultural Education: Inclusion and the \right to be Different, Third Edition. Toronto, ONT. Canadian Scholars Press Inc.

Graysbery, B. & Abrahams, R. (2014). Manage your work, manage your life. Harvard Business Review 92(4), 58-66.

Groysberg, B., Lee, J., Price, J. & Cheng, J. Yo-Jud. (2018, Jan-Feb). The leader’s guide to corporate culture: how to manage the eight critical elements of organizational life. Harvard Business Review, 96(1) 1, 2018, p. 44-52.

Heminsley, A. (2013). Running Like a Girl: Notes on learning to run. New York, NY. Scribner.

Hill, L.A., Brandeau, G., Truelove, G. & Lineback, K. (2014, June). Collective Genius. Harvard Business Review 92(6), 95-102.

Ibbitson, J. (2018, Oct 19). Foreign students transforming Canada’s schools, immigration. In The Globe and Mail;  retrieved Dec 11, 2018 from https://www.theglobeandmail.com/politics/article-foreign-students-transforming-canada-schools-immigration/

Ibarra, H. (2015). The outsight principle: Think Like a Leader Act Like a Leader. Talent Quarterly. 5, pp. 1-6. Retrieved April 25, 2015 from http://herminiaibarra.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/TQ5-Think-Like-a-Leader-Act-Like-a-Leader.pdf

Israelson, David. ( April 7, 2017). American MBA students drawn to Canada’s diversity. In The Globe and Mail;  retrieved Dec 10, 2018 from https://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/careers/business-education/american-mba-students-drawn-to-canadas-diversity/article32716735/

Kegan, R., Lahey, L. Fleming, A. & Miller, M. (2014, April). Making Business Personal. Harvard Business Review 92(4), 45-52.

Kets de Vries, M.F.R. (2014). Coaching the toxic leader. Harvard Business Review 92(3), 102-113.

Lewington, Jennifer. (April 14, 2017). International Students Flooding Canadian B-Schools with Application. In The Globe and Mail; retrieved Dec 10, 2018 from https://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/careers/business-education/international-students-flooding-canadian-b-schools-with-applications/article34355997/

Muggah, E., Darouge, S. & Hogg, W. (2012). Access to primary health care for immigrants: Resulst of a patient survey conduct in 137 primary care practices in Ontario, Canada.  BMC Family Practice, 13 (1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2296-13-128

O’Kane, Josh. (March 22, 2018). St. Mary’s brings the world to its doors. In The Globe and Mail; retrieved Dec 10, 2018 from  https://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/careers/business-education/east-meets-east-st-marys-brings-asia-to-its-doors/article27107530/

Sirkin, H.L., Hemerling, J.H., & Bhattacharya, A.K. (2008). Globality: Competing with everyone from everywhere for everything. New York, NY. Business Plus.

Wu, Cary and Wilkes, Rima. (2016). International students’  post-graduation migration plans and search for home. Geoforum 80(1), 123-132.

Xu, Xiao. (Sept 28, 2017).  Climbing number of foreign students puts B.C. university cap system to the test. In The Globe and Mail;  retrieved Dec 10, 2018 from  htttps://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/education/surge-in-foreign-postsecondary-applicants-puts-canadian-schools-balancing-act-to-test/article36415233/

Xu, Xiao. (April 22, 2018). B.C. universities impose steep tuition increases for foreign students. In The Globe and Mail; retrieved Dec 11, 2018 from https://www.theglobeandmail.com/canada/british-columbia/article-bc-universities-impose-steep-tuition-increases-for-foreign-students/

Zoepf, K. (2016). Excellent Daughters: The secret lives of young women who are transforming the Arab world. New York, NY. Penguin Press.















































Competency and Leading

“so it is the followers and not the leaders themselves who know bets about the quality and effectiveness of leadership”   by Geert Hofstede (Connerley & Pedersen, 2005, pp. IX-X)

The debate about the efficacy of competency as a measure of performance is a long one. The Hay Associates (see book on PM from 1990s in my office) proposed competency frameworks in the late twentieth century.

Entrepreneurial competency (Sabedena & Chandan, 2014)


Berg, M. and Seeber, B.K. (2016). The Slow Professor: Challenging the culure of speed in the academy. Toronto, ONT. University of Toronto Press.

Bowen, J.A. (2012). Teaching Naked: How moving technology out of your college classroom will improve student learning. San Francisco, CA. Jossey-Bass.

Brock, A. and Hundley, H. ( 2016). The Growth Mindset Coach: A teacher’s month-by-month handbook for empowering students to achieve. Berkeley, CA. Ulysses Press.

Crawford, M., Edmundson, M., Pfau, T. & McCullough, M. (2014, summer). Minding Our Minds. In The Hedgehog Review 16(2), 8-126.

Cross, J. (2007). Informal learning: Rediscovering the Natural Pathways That Inpsire Innovation and Performance. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.

Dweck, C.S. (   ). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York, NY. Ballantine Books.

Sambedna Jena, Chandan Kumar Sahoo, (2014). Improving managerial performance: a study on entrepreneurial and leadership competencies.  Industrial and Commercial Training, 46(3), pp.143-149, https://doi-org.contentproxy.phoenix.edu/10.1108/ICT-10-2013-0066

Knowles, M.S., Holton III, E.F., & Swanson, R.A. (2005). The Adult Learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development. 6th Edition. Burlington, MA. Elsevier

Kouzes, J.M. and Posner, B.Z. (2016). Learning Leadership:: The five fundamentals of becoming an exemplary leader. San Francisco, CA. Wiley.

Gilbert, T.F. (2007). Human Competence: Engineering Worthy Performance. Tribute Edition. San Francisco, CA. Pfeiffer.

Halbert, j. and Kaser, J. (2013, Feb). The Spiral of Inquiry: For equity and inquiry. Workbook 10th printing November 2016 by The BC Principals’ & Vice-Principals’ Association. Vancouver, BC. See http://www.bcpvpa.bc.ca

Lapham, L.W. (2008, fall). Ways of Learning. Edited collection of essyas on American education.  Lapham’s Quarterly  1(4), 1-221.

Leigh, E. and Kinder, J. ( 2001). Fun & Games for Workplace Learning: 40 structured learning activities to enhance workplace learning. Sydney, NSW. McGraw-Hill Australia

Merriam, S.B. and Bierema, L.L. (2014).  Adult Learning: Linking theory and practice. San Francisco, CA. Jossey-Bass

Raelin, J.A. (2008). Work-Based Learning: Bridging knowledge and action in the workplace. San Francisco, CA. Jossey-Bass

Stoner, C.R. and Stoner, J.S. (2013). Building Leaders: Paving the way for emerging leaders. New York, NY. Routledge.

Weatherby, L., Rosen, C., Jacobs, A., & Tenner, E. (2018, spring). The Human and the Digital. In The Hedgehog Review 20(1), 6-159.

Vancouver Symphony Orchestra Sept 22, 2018

Maestro Otto Tausk Otto Tausk was masterful in his animated conducting of the VSO this evening. A Dutch theme with music from the 20th century prevailed as Tausk began with the world premier of “Helix” by Edward Top. Brother pianists followed with a concerto for two pianos by Frances Poulenc, who wrote  the music  experience of the Paris Colonial Exposition in 1931.  Seated in the second row, I was intrigued by the closeness to a small harp; and later we wondered how the musician transported her instrument. After intermission, it was Stravinsky’s music from a ballet known as “The Firebird”. We were transfixed by Tausk’s movements; he smiled and gestured to his musicians, graciously acknowledging individuals and deftly used his fingers and fists to commence or close a musical passage. Apparently, Stravinsky visited Vancouver in 1965, a time when the city was largely unknown to the rest of the world. In these autumn concerts, Tausk makes his inaugural debut as music director for the VSO. Tausk conducts with physicality and reinforces our European roots. And yes, there was chocolate soufflé in our pre-concert meal!

Shores of Western Ireland

If you turn away from the renowned Cliffs of Moher and look in opposite direction, you see an equally compelling shoreline.

Source: Shores of Western Ireland

This Is 40: On the Virtues of Incremental Progress — Discover

Upon turning 40, screenwriter-turned-novelist Sean Carlin writes about friendship, learning, and the value of slow, gradual growth.

via This Is 40: On the Virtues of Incremental Progress — Discover

The Math Problem Diverting Women Out Of STEM Careers – Vocativ — Lueny Morell


via The Math Problem Diverting Women Out Of STEM Careers – Vocativ — Lueny Morell

The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Canada: Institutional Impact New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 146 — SOTL Canada

Nicola Simmons, Editor Two years ago, SoTL Canada posted an invitation to submit institutional case study chapters to provide examples and evidence of the ways in which post-secondary institutions in Canada have developed and sustained programs around the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning that impact the institutional pedagogical climate. This special journal issue, The Scholarship […]

via The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Canada: Institutional Impact New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 146 — SOTL Canada